Grouse is a bird widely distributed from Eurasia to North America. It is also said to be the most adaptable bird among the ptarmigans. This bird has a very wide range of habitat, but if you look at the area, there are places where it seems to be extinct. In Japan, this bird is designated as an endangered species, mainly in the Chubu region. Some of them have already been confirmed extinct.
Grouse is widely distributed from Eurasia to North America.
Grouse is 37 cm in total length. It is a bird classified in the genus ptarmigan, Phasianidae, Phasianidae, and is said to be a valuable survivor from the Ice Age. The plumage color changes to white and brown in the summer, and all white in the winter. The wings are white and the same in summer and winter. They also have feathers on their toes. Feathers are divided into two shafts and have a high density of hair, so they can contain a lot of air. There are subspecies of this bird, and 17 species in 6 genera inhabit the world. Grouse live in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere to the Arctic Circle, and are very widely distributed. The main habitat is alpine areas and grasslands.
Grouse live by eating alpine plant buds, seeds, and other plants. Nests tend to be made by arranging pumice or the like in a dish shape. The mode of reproduction is oviparous. Spawning takes place from late May to early July, and it is possible to lay 1-8 eggs at a time. Only the female incubates the eggs, which hatch in about 20 days. The lifespan of ptarmigans is still unknown.
Grouse are widely distributed all over the world and are not in danger of extinction. However, some areas are extinct in some countries. In Japan, the number of grouse is decreasing due to global warming and predation by carnivores. Furthermore, deforestation by humans is also a big blow. In Japan, ptarmigan was designated as a natural monument in 1955. It is predicted that if the average temperature in Japan rises another 3°C, the ptarmigan will become extinct. Complete extinction has already been confirmed in Ishikawa Prefecture. It is also designated as an endangered species in Yamanashi, Niigata, Toyama, Gifu, Nagano, and Shizuoka prefectures. Due to its critical condition, attempts are being made to breed it in captivity and to reintroduce it into extinction areas.
Grouse can be kept in captivity, but in some countries such as Japan, they are protected and designated as an endangered species. Therefore, it is better to give up breeding and consider watching at a zoo.